Influenza

Influenza prevention

Influenza (flu) is an infectious viral disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality every year. Different strains of flu circulate annually, and the number and severity of cases can hinge on how well aligned the circulating strains are with that season's vaccine and on how likely the circulating strains are to cause severe disease. Influenza can place a significant burden on the healthcare system, as even in a year with average flu activity, doctor's visits and hospital admissions peak around flu season. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new (also known as “novel”) strain of flu enters the human population and spreads globally.

NCDMPH has gathered educational resources to foster resilience through learning. The organization of this content is intended to facilitate self-directed learning as well as provide materials for educators. This is an ongoing effort and we will continue to add to this list of resources. Help contribute to "a nation of resilient communities" by educating yourself and others on disaster health topics related to influenza.



-- Background and Health Impacts --

CDC: Flu Homepage

CDC: Influenza Activity and Surveillance

HHS: Who's at Risk

HHS: About Pandemics

HHS: How the Flu Virus Changes

University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine: Influenza as a Zoonotic Disease (Scroll down for links specific to Avian and Swine Influenza)

CDC: Flu Symptoms and Severity

CDC: Estimating Seasonal Influenza-Associated Deaths in the United States: CDC Study Confirms Variability of Flu

Rothberg MB, Haessler SD, Brown RB. Complications of Viral Influenza PDF . The American Journal of Medicine. 2008; 121(4):258-264.


-- Prevention --

CDC: Good Health Habits for Preventing Seasonal Flu

CDC: Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs)

CDC: Preventing Seasonal Flu With Vaccination

CDC: Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (for People 65 Years of Age or Older)

Carlos A. DiazGranados CA, Dunning AJ, Kimmel M, Kirby D, Treanor J, Collins A, Pollack R, Christoff J, Earl J, Landolfi V, Martin E, Gurunathan S, Nathan R, Greenberg DP, Tornieporth NG, Decker MD, Talbot HK. Efficacy of High-Dose versus Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in Older Adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014; 371:635-645.

CDC: Selecting the Viruses in the Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine

CDC: Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Flu Vaccine Work?

Tricco AC, Chit A, Soobiah C, Hallett D, Meier G, Chen MH, Tashkandi M, Bauch CT, Loeb M. Comparing influenza vaccine efficacy against mismatched and matched strains: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Medicine. 2013; 11:153.

CDC: Pneumococcal Vaccination

Shrestha S, Foxman B, Weinberger DM, Steiner C, Viboud C, Rohani P. Identifying the Interaction Between Influenza and Pneumococcal Pneumonia Using Incidence Data PDF . Science Translational Medicine. 2013; 5(191): 191ra84.


-- Treatment --

HHS: Treatment

CDC: What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs

CDC: Influenza Antiviral Medications: Summary for Clinicians

CDC: Antiviral Drugs for Seasonal Influenza: Additional Links and Resources

CDC: Influenza Antiviral Drug Resistance


-- Healthcare Systems --

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Dr. Thomas Talbot): Seasonal Influenza: Impact Upon the Healthcare System PDF 

OSHA: Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Guidance for Healthcare Workers and Healthcare Employers

ORISE/CDC: Coordinating Pediatric Medical Care During an Influenza Pandemic: Hospital Workbook PDF 

CDC: Pandemic Flu Preparedness Tools for Hospital Administrators and Local Health Officials

CDC: Infection Control in Health Care Facilities

CDC: Interim Guidance for Influenza Outbreak Management in Long-Term Care Facilities


-- Healthcare Workforce Preparedness --

CDC: Information for Health Professionals

HHS: Influenza Vaccination Information for Health Care Workers

Stewart AM. Mandatory Vaccination of Health Care Workers. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009;361:2015-2017.

Babcock HM, Gemeinhart N, Jones M, Claiborne Dungan W, Woeltje KF. Mandatory Influenza Vaccination of Health Care Workers: Translating Policy to Practice. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2010;50(4):459-464.

History of Vaccines Blog by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia: Healthcare Worker Influenza Immunization: Mandates, Benefits, Consequences


-- Psychosocial --

CSTS: Mental health and Behavioral Guidelines for Response to a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

Colorado Disaster Behavioral Health Response System: Pandemic Influenza: Quarantine, Isolation, and Social Distancing: Toolbox for Public Health and Public Behavioral Health Professionals PDF 

Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services: Pandemic Influenza Plan: Psychosocial Services Preparedness PDF 


-- Community Health --

HHS: Community Planning

CDC: Free Resources about Flu

CDC: National Influenza Vaccination Week: Media Toolkit

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